Mbeki, Bush discuss Africa

first_img2 June 2005Conflict in Darfur, Sudan and the upcoming G8 summit were top of the agenda when President Thabo Mbeki met United States President George W Bush at the White House on Wednesday.Mbeki was in Washington on a two-day state visit, accompanied by Foreign Minister Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma.The two heads of state met in the Oval Office for an hour-long private discussion before speaking to reporters from both countries.According to Foreign Affairs spokesman Ronnie Mamoepa, Mbeki has been consulting various leaders of the G8 with a view to ensuring practical outcomes for Africa during the G8 summit, which takes place in Gleneagles, Scotland from 6 to 8 July.Britain, currently the chair of the G8, has put African development, including debt cancellation, high on the agenda for the July summit.Mbeki is one of a number of African heads of state will will be attending the July conference, where Bush said he hoped to advance what he called his “compassion agenda”.Bush said that the issue of aid to Africa was a “two-way street”, requiring recipient countries to eradicate corruption and to commit themselves to “democratic principles, such as rule of law and transparency and human rights and human decency.“That’s where [Mbeki] has played such a vital role, because South Africa has been a stalwart when it comes to democratic institutions,” Bush said.Discussing Darfur, Mbeki thanked Bush for the assistance that the US has provided in the region thus far, at the same time calling for more humanitarian aid for the region.“What we’ve asked for is the necessary logistical and other support to be able to ensure that we discharge our responsibilities,” Mbeki said.“We have not asked for anybody outside of the African continent to deploy troops in Darfur. It’s an African responsibility and we can do it.”In May, Bush and former South African president Nelson Mandela discussed the battle against Aids in Africa and ways of reducing developing country debt during a meeting at the White House.SouthAfrica.info reporterlast_img read more

Cold Floors and Warm Ceilings

first_img Sign up for a free trial and get instant access to this article as well as GBA’s complete library of premium articles and construction details. This article is only available to GBA Prime Members During the winter, the air near your floor is cold, while the air near your ceiling is hot. Similarly, during the summer, the air conditioner keeps your first floor comfortable, while the rooms on the second floor are unbearably hot. What’s going on?The usual answer is, “Heat rises.” But that explanation isn’t quite accurate. (It’s true that hot air rises by convection. But heat travels in all directions, including sideways and downward, by conduction and radiation.)The scenarios I’ve described are variations on the theme of temperature stratification — problems caused when indoor air temperatures are layered horizontally, with cold air down low and hot air up high, like layers in a parfait.Let’s start with a simple example: a single-story slab-on-grade house with temperature stratification problems. The thermostat is 48 inches above the floor, and it’s set at 72°F. On a winter day, when you are sitting at your desk, the air near your feet is at 65°F. Up near the ceiling, the air is at 79°F. Why?There are two main causes of this phenomenon.Air leaks coupled with the stack effect. The most important factor in this type of stratification is air leakage. Holes near a home’s ceiling allow warm interior air to escape into the attic. As this air escapes, it pulls in cold exterior air through cracks near the floor — for example, cracks near the threshold of an exterior door. The engine for this type of air movement is the stack effect. Since the warm interior air near the ceiling is at a positive pressure with respect to the outdoors, it wants to escape. Since the cool interior air near the floor is at a negative pressure… center_img Start Free Trial Already a member? Log inlast_img read more